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Menya Pariki y’igihugu y’Ibirunga.

Pariki y’Ibirunga Pariki y’Ibirunga y’u Rwanda, Pariki Nasiyonali y’Ibirunga ni Pariki iri mu majyaruguru ashyira uburengerazuba bw’u Rwanda. Iyi Pariki ni nayo ibonekamo Ingagi zo mu misozi (cyangwa zo mu birunga). Yemejwe bwa mbere mu mwaka wa 1925. Muri icyo gihe yari agace gato hagati y’ibirunga bya Kalisimbi, Bisoke na Mikeno. Niyo pariki nkuru y’igihugu yashinzwe bwa mbere muri Afurika.

Mu mwaka wa 1929 iyo pariki yongerewe ubunini kuko yahise ifata ubutaka bw’ U Rwanda ndetse na Congo Mbiligi ariyo Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Kongo uyu munsi. Icyo gihe iyi pariki yahise igira ubuso bungana na 8090 km² , ibyo byakozwe mu rwego rwo kuyihinduramo Pariki Albert, yacungwaga n’abakoloni b’Ababiligi dore ko ari nabo bakoronizaga ibyo bihugu byombi.

Nyuma y’uko Congo ibonye ubwingenge mu 1960 ndetse n’U Rwanda mu 1962, Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga yahise icikamo ibice bibiri, buri gihugu kigira agace gicunga, ku ruhande rw’U Rwanda iyo pariki yahise itangira kugabanuka ubunini kuko abaturage batangiye kuyisatira bashaka aho gutura no guhinga.

Mu mwaka wa 1967 iyi pariki yabaye intangiriro y’ubushakashatsi ku ngagi bw’ Umunyamerikakazi wabaye ikirangirire mu bushakashatsi bw’ibidukikije, Diana Fossey. Akigera muri Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga yahise atangiza ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi yise Karisoke Research Centre, hagati ya Karisimbi na Bisoke. Guhera ubwo, igihe cye kinini yagifataga muri pariki, kandi akeshwa kuba yarahesheje agaciro Ingagi zo mu Rwanda, asaba ko zitabwaho ku rwego mpuzamahanga.[4]

Diana Fossey yiciwe mu rugo iwe mu mwaka w’1985, azize abashimusi batazwi yari amaze igihe akumira, ahambwa muri pariki y’Ibirunga hafi y’ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi yari yarashinze.

Ingagi zo mu birunga mu Rwanda ziri mu ho zisigaye ku isi.

Pariki y’Igihugu y’Ibirunga yaje kurangwamo umutekano mucye ubwo hatangiraga Urugambo rwo kubohora igihugu  hagati y’abahoze ari ingabo z’U Rwanda n’ingabo za RPF-Inkotanyi ku buryo mu mwaka wa 1992 hagabwe igitero ku mujyi wa Ruhengeri ahari icyicaro  cy’iyo pariki biza gutuma ibikorwa bya ba mukerarugendo ndetse n’ubushakashatsi bwakorerwaga muri iyo parike bihagarara. Ibikorwa by’umutekano mucye byarakomeje bitewe n’abahoze mu ngabo zatsinzwe bacengeraga baturutse muri Congo ihana imbibe n’U Rwanda mu majyaruguru. Ibyo bikorwa by’ubugizi bwa nabi byahagaze mu 1999 bihoshejwe burundu n’ingabo z’u Rwanda.

Iyi pariki irimo urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima nk’ibimera ndetse n’inyamaswa. Ibimera bigenda bitandukana bitewe n’ubutumburuke. Hari ishyamba ry’imisozi migufi (igice cyaryo kinini cyarahinzwe). Hagati ya metero 2400 na 2500 z’ubutumburuke, hari ishyamba ryo mu bwoko bwa Neoboutonia, naho ku butumburuke bwa metero 2500 kugeza kuri 3200 hari ishyamba ry’urugano rwo mu bwoko bwa Arundinaria alpine, riri ku buso bubarirwa kuri 30% bya pariki yose.

              Muri Pariki y’igihugu y’Ibirunga hanabonekamo Inkende zitwa iza zahabu.

Ku butumburuke bwa metero 2600 kugera kuri 3600, ahanini ku bice by’imisozi bikonja byo mu majyepfo y’uburasirazuba, hari ishyamba ryo mu bwoko bwa Hagenia-Hypericum, ribarirwa kuri 30% bya pariki yose. Iri shyamba ni rimwe mu mashyamba manini muri Afurika rifite ibiti byo mu bwoko bwa Hagenia abyssinica. aha kandi ni naho hagaragara ishyamba ry’urugano.

Ibimera byo ku butumburuke bubarirwa hagati ya metero 3500 na 4200, rigaragaramo cyane ibiti byo mu bwoko bwa Lobelia wollastoniiL. lanurensis na Senecio erici-rosenii, rikaba ribarirwa ku bugari bwa 25% bya pariki yose. Kuva kuri metero 4300 kugeza kuri 4200 z’ubutumburuke, ibyatsi ni byo bihagaragara.

Hagaragara kandi igisambu cy’ibyatsi binini ndetse n’icy’ibito, ishyamba risanzwe n’ibiyaga bito, ariko ibi byose bibarirwa ku buso buto.

                    Hejuru ku Kirunga cya Bisoke hari ikiyaga.

Mu rwego rw’ isi, iyi pariki izwi cyane ku ngagi zo mu misozi (Gorilla beringei). ari nazo zituma isurwa cyane kurwe rushimishije ikinjiza n’ amadevize menshi, Izindi nyamaswa z’inyamabere zigaragara muri iyi pariki ni: Inguge zo mu bwoko bw’inkima(Cercopithecus mitis kandti); Inzovu (Loxodonta africana); impyisi z’amabara zo mu bwoko bwa Crocuta n’Impongi(Tragelaphus scriptus). Iyi pariki kandi irimo inzovu n’ubwo ari nke. Harimo amoko 178 y’inyoni, byibura 13 muri yo na 16 y’ibisanira byayo akaba ari yo aboneka cyane mu birunga no mu misozi ya Rwenzori.

Ishusho ya Muhabura na Gahinga uyirebeye kure.

Muri Pariki Nasiyonali y’Ibirunga usangamo 245 y’ibimera harimo amoko 13 ya zirinzwe mu rwego mpuzamahanga, 115 y’inyamanswa  z’inyamabere harimo Ingagi zo mu misozi zirenze 650, amoko 187 y’inyoni, amoko 27 y’ibikururanda n’imitubu, n’amoko 33 y’udukoko duto.

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