UBUZIMA

DUSOBANUKIRWE INDWARA YA JAUNDICE/UMUHONDO

Nubwo twayita indwara, ariko jaundice ubwayo si indwara ahubwo ni ikimenyetso cy’uko mu mubiri bitagenda neza. Jaundice ikaba cya gihe ku bana, uruhu rwabo n’amaso bihindura ibara bikazamo umuhondo kandi iki kibazo gifata hafi 50% by’impinja nubwo abenshi biba bidakabije kandi byikiza. Jaundice ikaba kandi igaragara cyane ku bahungu kuruta abakobwa aho ikunze kugaragara mu cyumweru cya mbere umwana avutse nubwo no mu bindi bihe ashobora kuyigira nkuko n’abakuru bashobora kuyirwara bitewe n’imikorere mibi cyangwa uburwayi by’umwijima.

Muri iyi nkuru turareba igitera jaundice, ibiyiranga, uko ivurwa nuko wayirinda umwana.

Jaundice iterwa n’iki?

Kurwara jaundice ku bana biterwa nuko bilirubin iba yabaye nyinshi mu mubiri. Iyi bilirubin ni ibisigazwa bibaho iyo insoro zitukura zishaje ziri gushwanyaguzwa bikaba bibera mu mwijima bigasohokera mu byo umwana yituma.

Umwijima kandi na wo udakora neza ushobora gutuma habaho jaundice kuko ntuba ubasha gusohora bilirubin uko ije bityo ikibika bigatera ikibazo.

Ku bana bonka jaundice iva ku mpamvu ebyiri nyamukuru

1. Bwa mbere ituruka ku buryo umwana yonkamo. Iyi ikunze kugaragara mu cyumweru cya mbere aho iterwa no konsa umwana gacye cyangwa nyina akaba atarayobora (adafite amashereka ahagije)
2. Bwa kabiri iterwa n’amashereka umwana yonka. Ibigize amashereka bishobora gutuma hakorwa bilirubin nyinshi irenze ubushobozi bw’iyo umwijima ubasha gusohora. Iyi ikunze kuba nyuma y’icyumweru umwana avutse igakomeza kugeza mu cya 3 cyangwa icya 4.
Uretse ibi kandi jaundice ku mwana ishobora guterwa n’indwara zinyuranye harimo:

• Kurwara umwijima
• Kubura amaraso bizwi nka sickle cell anemia
• Kuvira imbere mu ruhu rw’umutwe ahanini byatewe no kuvuka bigoranye
• Sepsis, cyangwa ubwandu bw’amaraso
• Kuba insoro zitukura ziremye nabi
• Kuba imiyoboro y’indurwe ifunze
• Kuba umwana na nyina badahuje Rhesus cyane cyane iyo nyina afite Rh- naho umwana akagira Rh+
• Kugira insoro zitukura nyinshi. Ibi bikunze kuba ku bana bavutse ari bato cyane cyangwa se abavutse ari impanga
• Kuvukana indwara ziterwa na bagiteri cyangwa virusi
• Kuba afite oxygen nkeya, muri macye atabasha guhumeka neza
Nubwo kugira jaundice bishobora kuba ku bana muri rusange ariko hari ababa bafite ibyago byo kuyigira kurenza abandi

Abafite ibyago kurenza abandi

• Abavutse igihe kitageze. Aba bana baba bafite umwijima utarakora neza kandi bituma gacye bivuze ko bilirubin yibika ari nyinshi
• Umwana wonka amashereka arimo intungamubiri zidahagije cyangwa utonka neza aba afite nawe ibyago kurenza abandi kuko n’umubiri we nta mazi uba ubona
• Kudahuza amaraso na nyina. Kuba adafite ubwoko bumwe bw’amaraso na nyina cyane cyane ku byerekeye rhesus nabyo byongera ibyago.
• Kuvuka atinze. Akenshi umwana uvutse atinze anavuka ameze nk’uwakoze impanuka, ananiwe bityo bigatuma insoro zitukura zishwanyaguzwa vuba bigatera kwiyongera kwa bilirubin.

Ibimenyetso bya jaundice

Uretse kugira amaso ahakabaye umweru hakaba umuhondo ndetse n’uruhu rurimo umuhondo ibindi bimenyetso bya jaundice harimo:

• Guhondobera
• Umwanda wijimye. Ubusanzwe umwana wonka umwanda we uba usa n’icyatsi kirimo umuhondo naho uhabwa amata akituma ibisa n’icyati. Iyo afite jaundice rero yituma ibyijimye
• Kutabasha konka
• Inkari zijimye ukuntu (ubusanzwe inkari z’umwana nta bara zigira)

Iyo jaundice yamurenze ibimenyetso byiyongeraho harimo:

• Akada gasa umuhondo cyangwa amaboko n’amaguru by’umuhondo
• Guhondobera
• Kutiyongera ibiro
• Kwivumbura no kwiyenza icyo umuhaye cyangwa umukoreye cyose akacyanga
• Kunanirwa konka

Ivurwa ite?

Nyuma yo gusuzuma bakamenya ikigero igezeho niho bahitamo uburyo bukwiriye bwakoreshwa mu kuvura. Ubusanzwe jaundice idakabije irikiza hagati y’icyumweru na bibiri umwana avutse. Gusa iyo bigaragara cyane umwana asubizwa mu bitaro aho ahererwa ubufasha bumuvura agakira neza.

Bumwe mu buryo bukoreshwa mu kuvura harimo:

Phototherapy (kuvurisha urumuri). Hano umwana ashyirwa ku rumuri rwabigenewe rukaba rutuma bilirubin iri mu mubiri ibasha gusohoka, muri macye rutuma umwana yituma kenshi cyangwa se yituma ibirimo bilirubin nyinshi. Uretse uru rumuri, umwana ashobora no gushyirwa ku kazuba k’agasusuruko cyangwa ka kiberinka nabyo birafasha. Gusa byose byemezwa na muganga
Kugurana amaraso. Iyo uburyo bwa mbere ntacyo butanze cyangwa se umwana arembye cyane agenda avomwamo amaraso agasimbuzwa andi
Guterwa Immunoglobulin. Ibi bikorwa mu gihe umwana afite jaundice yatewe nuko adahuje amaraso na nyina. Iyi poroteyine aterwa igabanya igipimo cy’abasirikare b’umubiri bari baje kwangiza insoro ze zitukura

Mu gihe jaundice yatewe n’ikindi kintu kiravurwa ndetse hari n’igihe biba ngombwa kubagwa kugirango barengere umwana.

Iyo itavuwe kare

Iyo utinze kuvuza umwana jaundice bishobora kumutera ibibazo bindi birimo:

• Kuba ya bilirubin yazamuka ikirundanya mu bwonko, kandi bilirubin ni uburozi ku bwonko. Ibimenyetso harimo kugira umuriro, kurira ukumva biryana mu matwi, kunanirwa konka, ubunebwe bukabije no guhetama ijosi n’umubiri ukaba nk’umuheto
• Iyo bikabije ntibivurwe bitera kernicterus ibi bikaba bizana urupfu kuko ubwonko buba bwangiritse
• Ibindi harimo gupfa amatwi no kuremara biterwa nuko ubwonko bwangiritse ntibube bugituma abasha gukoresha ibice by’umubiri (cerebral palsy)

Ni gute jaundice yakirindwa

Uburyo bwa mbere bwiza bwo kurinda umwana kuba yagira jaundice harimo kumwonsa neza kandi bihagije. Mu cyumweru cya mbere umwana avutse aba agomba konka hagati y’inshuro 8 na 12 ku munsi. Abahabwa amata nabo bagahabwa hagati ya 30mL na 60mL buri masaha hagati ya 2 na 3.

Ikindi ni ukumushyira ku kazuba niyo yaba atagaragaza ibimenyetso bya jaundice gusa ukirinda kumutinzaho. Iminota hagati ya 10 na 15 irahagije.

 

Dusoze twibutsa ko n’abantu bakuru bashobora kurwara jaundice cyane cyane iyo bafite umwijima udakora neza, barwaye hepatite, banywa inzoga nyinshi kandi cyane

Byakusanyijwe na Biramahire Franςois

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